[232], The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the emperor to have great influence and authority in the early Christian councils, most notably the dispute over Arianism. Constantine and his Franks marched under the standard of the labarum, and both sides saw the battle in religious terms. Historians remain uncertain about Constantine’s reasons for favoring Christianity, and theologians and historians have argued about which form of Early Christianity he subscribed to. [317] According to Geoffrey, Cole was King of the Britons when Constantius, here a senator, came to Britain. CH 3312 Austin Graduate School of Theology . [212] Among the various locations proposed for this alternative capital, Constantine appears to have toyed earlier with Serdica (present-day Sofia), as he was reported saying that "Serdica is my Rome". [139] Early in the spring of 312 AD,[140] Constantine crossed the Cottian Alps with a quarter of his army, a force numbering about 40,000. Constantine opposed Greece’s participation in World War I on the side of the Entente. The Roman Emperor Constantine (c 280 - 337 A.D.) was one of the most influential personages in ancient history. Constantine’s reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and for centuries after his reign. While the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great reigned (306-337 CE), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. She has taught heritage of the western world and U.S. history. The Roman coins minted up to eight years after the battle still bore the images of Roman gods. [69] By the time Galerius awoke the following morning, Constantine had fled too far to be caught. [87] He drove them back beyond the Rhine and captured Kings Ascaric and Merogais; the kings and their soldiers were fed to the beasts of Trier's amphitheatre in the adventus (arrival) celebrations which followed. Within the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantine had secretly prepared a final resting-place for himself. He enforced the council's prohibition against celebrating the Lord's Supper on the day before the Jewish Passover, which marked a definite break of Christianity from the Judaic tradition. [211], Licinius' defeat came to represent the defeat of a rival centre of pagan and Greek-speaking political activity in the East, as opposed to the Christian and Latin-speaking Rome, and it was proposed that a new Eastern capital should represent the integration of the East into the Roman Empire as a whole, as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation for the whole of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line. [226] He supported the Church financially, built basilicas, granted privileges to clergy (such as exemption from certain taxes), promoted Christians to high office, and returned property confiscated during the long period of persecution. Fall 2004 . [40] It is uncertain whether she was legally married to Constantius or merely his concubine. [26] Written during the reign of Theodosius II (AD 408–450), a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastical historians obscure the events and theologies of the Constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation, and deliberate obscurity. [153] The road to Rome was now wide open to Constantine. Constantine planned to be baptized in the Jordan River before crossing into Persia. Each emperor would have his own court, his own military and administrative faculties, and each would rule with a separate praetorian prefect as chief lieutenant. According to this, after Constantine had pardoned him, Maximian planned to murder Constantine in his sleep. Constantine granted some clemency, but strongly encouraged his suicide. [192] At the focal point of the basilica, a stone statue was erected of Constantine holding the Christian labarum in its hand. One of his major political legacies, aside from moving the capital of the empire to Constantinople, was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletian’s tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession. Downers Grove: IL, InterVarsity Press 2010. [214] Eventually, however, Constantine decided to work on the Greek city of Byzantium, which offered the advantage of having already been extensively rebuilt on Roman patterns of urbanism, during the preceding century, by Septimius Severus and Caracalla, who had already acknowledged its strategic importance. In response to border raids, Constantine sent Constantius to guard the eastern frontier in 335. Special commemorative coins were issued in 330 to honor the event. [258] At the time of the executions, it was commonly believed that Empress Fausta was either in an illicit relationship with Crispus or was spreading rumors to that effect. The history of the medieval world : from the conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade. Exclusion of the old senatorial aristocracy threatened this arrangement. His collection of plants is stored in The Goulandris Museum of Natural History. Each would be subordinate to their respective augustus (senior emperor) but would act with supreme authority in his assigned lands. Created by. Constantine is a village in St. Joseph County in the U.S. state of Michigan.The population was 2,095 at the 2000 census.The village is located within Constantine Township.It is on U.S. Highway 131, leading to Kalamazoo to the north and to the Indiana Toll Road six miles to the south. While some of this is owed to his fame and his proclamation as Emperor in Britain, there was also confusion of his family with Magnus Maximus's supposed wife Saint Elen and her son, another Constantine (Welsh: Custennin). The new ideology expressed in the speech made Galerius and Maximian irrelevant to Constantine's right to rule. [251] These bronze pieces continued to be devalued, assuring the possibility of keeping fiduciary minting alongside a gold standard. [230] After the pagan gods had disappeared from his coinage, Christian symbols appeared as Constantine's attributes, the chi rho between his hands or on his labarum,[231] as well on the coin itself. The new frontier in Dacia was along the Brazda lui Novac line supported by new castra. Constantine served with distinction under emperors Diocletian and Galeriuscampaignin… [233] His influence over the Church councils was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, and uphold ecclesiastical unity; the Church's role was to determine proper worship, doctrines, and dogma. He ordered all bridges across the Tiber cut, reportedly on the counsel of the gods,[156] and left the rest of central Italy undefended; Constantine secured that region's support without challenge. He was the first Christian emperor and saw the empire begin to become a Christian state. His mother, Helena, was Greek and of low birth. Gravity. [161] On 28 October 312 AD, the sixth anniversary of his reign, he approached the keepers of the Sibylline Books for guidance. [163] The battle was brief,[175] and Maxentius' troops were broken before the first charge. [46] Additionally, no earlier source mentions that Helena was born in Britain, let alone that she was a princess. [118] The oration's religious shift is paralleled by a similar shift in Constantine's coinage. All structures built by him were rededicated to Constantine, including the Temple of Romulus and the Basilica of Maxentius. By the spring of 310 AD, Galerius was referring to both men as augusti. He strengthened the circuit wall around the city with military towers and fortified gates, and he began building a palace complex in the northeastern part of the city. [257] Few ancient sources are willing to discuss possible motives for the events, and the few that do are of later provenance and are generally unreliable. Constantine (/ ˈ k ɒ n s t ən t aɪ n / or / ˈ k ɒ n s t ən t iː n /; Latin: Cōnstantīnus, Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, Kōnstantînos) is a masculine and feminine (in French for example) given name and surname which is derived from the Latin name Constantinus, a hypocoristic of the first names Constans and Constantius, both meaning "constant, steadfast" in Latin. In her earlier work, The History of the Ancient World, Susan Wise Bauer wrote of the rise of kingship based on might. The February 313 CE agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire, thereby ending years of persecution. History of Christianity . Drake, "Impact of Constantine on Christianity" (CC), 113. In constructing the Old Saint Peter's Basilica, Constantine went to great lengths to erect the basilica on top of St. Peter's resting place, so much so that it even affected the design of the basilica, including the challenge of erecting it on the hill where St. Peter rested, making its complete construction time over 30 years from the date Constantine ordered it to be built. Three regional Church councils and another trial before Constantine all ruled against Donatus and the Donatism movement in North Africa. Pagans showered him with praise, such as Praxagoras of Athens, and Libanius. The new city was protected by the relics of the True Cross, the Rod of Moses and other holy relics, though a cameo now at the Hermitage Museum also represented Constantine crowned by the tyche of the new city. Bleckmann, "Sources for the History of Constantine" (CC), 14; Corcoran. By adopting Christianity as the religion of the vast Roman Empire, he elevated a once illegal cult to the law of the land. [27] The contemporary writings of the orthodox Christian Athanasius, and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius also survive, though their biases are no less firm. It repudiates past methods of religious coercion and used only general terms to refer to the divine sphere—"Divinity" and "Supreme Divinity", summa divinitas. [143] Turin refused to give refuge to Maxentius' retreating forces, opening its gates to Constantine instead. The name "Constantine" itself enjoyed renewed popularity in western France in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. A history of the Christian Church speaks of church before Constantine and after Constantine. Although he shared the paganism of Rome's aristocracy, he seemed to them an alien figure, a semi-barbarian. [63] Lactantius states that Galerius manipulated the weakened Diocletian into resigning, and forced him to accept Galerius' allies in the imperial succession. Terms in this set (29) Cyrus the Great. As the first Roman emperor to claim conversion to Christianity, Constantine played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which decreed tolerance for Christianity in the empire. In 310 AD, he marched to the northern Rhine and fought the Franks. He disembarked at Lugdunum (Lyon). In response, he sent ambassadors to Rome, offering political recognition to Maxentius in exchange for a military support. After his father's death in 306, Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (York). It subsequently became the capital of the Empire for more than a thousand years, the later Eastern Roman Empire being referred to as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians. [37] Constantine's mother was Helena, a Greek woman of low social standing from Helenopolis of Bithynia. From then on, the solar Julian Calendar was given precedence over the lunisolar Hebrew Calendar among the Christian churches of the Roman Empire. [305], These later accounts were more willing to present Constantine as a genuine convert to Christianity. Diocletian's first appointee for the office of Caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius, a native of Felix Romuliana. Constantine's armies emerged victorious. An inscription in honor of city prefect (336–337) Ceionius Rufus Albinus states that Constantine had restored the Senate "the auctoritas it had lost at Caesar's time". 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